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Battery Technology in Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

In Hybrid and Electric vehicles, battery technology is the key component that directly affects the basis, performance, range and charging times of the vehicles.
Lithium ion batteries are the most widely used battery type and stand out with their high energy density, lightweight structure and long life. ​

Battery in Electric Vehicles: Source of Power

Although electric vehicles have newer technology compared to gasoline or diesel vehicles, their popularity has been rapidly increasing in recent years. One of the most important reasons for this increasing popularity is the development of batteries used in electric vehicles.

What is a Battery?

The battery used in electric vehicles is a system that stores electrical energy and provides power to the vehicle's engine. Batteries work by converting chemical energy into electrical energy.

Battery and Types

The battery used in electric vehicles is a system that stores electrical energy and provides power to the vehicle's engine. Batteries work by converting chemical energy into electrical energy.

There are different types of batteries used in electric vehicles. The most commonly used battery type is lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries are preferred because they have high energy density and long life.

Other types of batteries include:

• Lithium polymer batteries: Similar to lithium-ion batteries, but more flexible and lighter.
• Lead acid batteries: Less expensive, but have lower energy density and shorter life than lithium-ion batteries.
• Nickel metal hydride batteries: Offer better performance than lead acid batteries, but are more expensive than lithium-ion batteries.

Battery Capacity:

The capacity of a battery is measured in kilowatt hours (kWh). Capacity indicates how much electrical energy a battery can store. The higher the capacity, the longer the range of the electric vehicle.

Factors Affecting Battery Capacity:

Factors Affecting Battery Capacity:• Battery type: Lithium-ion batteries have higher capacity than lead acid batteries.

• Chemistry of battery cells: Different chemicals offer different capacity values.

• Size of the battery: Larger batteries can store more energy than smaller batteries.

Battery Life:

Battery Life: The life of a battery shows how many times it can be charged and discharged. An average electric vehicle battery has a lifespan of 8-10 years.

Factors Affecting Battery Life:

• Charge and discharge cycles: Frequent charging and discharging shortens the life of the battery.

• Deep discharge: Completely discharging the battery will damage its life.

• Temperature: High temperatures shorten the life of the battery.

Battery Charging:

Electric vehicle batteries can be charged in different ways:
• Household socket: It is the most common and slowest charging method.
• Special charging stations: Offers faster charging from home.
• Fast charging stations: It is the fastest charging method, but it carries the risk of damaging the battery.

Factors Affecting Battery Charging Time:

• Charging power The higher the power, the shorter the charging time.

• Battery capacity:The higher the capacity, the longer the charging time.

• Type of battery: Lithium-ion batteries charge faster than lead acid batteries.

Main Components and Functions of Modern Batteries

The battery is the main energy source of modern electronic devices and vehicles. Inside is a complex set of parts, each important to the functionality and safety of the battery.

Settlement Cover (Aluminum Plate): The aluminum plate that covers and protects the upper part of the battery provides protection against external factors and isolates the internal parts.

Cell Modules: Cell modules, the building blocks of the battery, consist of interconnected cells and store and release electrical energy. Cells are usually made of materials such as lithium-ion, nickel-cadmium or lead.

Connection Bar: It is the connection element that connects the cell modules to each other and allows electric current to flow. It ensures uniform distribution of electric current. It minimizes energy loss thanks to its high conductivity feature.

Aluminum Crash Structure: The aluminum structure, which protects the battery against impacts that may occur in accidents, protects the physical integrity of the battery and prevents damage to the components inside. Lightness and durability are generally achieved by using aluminum.

Battery Management System (BMS): Ensuring the battery operates safely and efficiently, BMS monitors imbalances between cells, prevents overcharge and discharge, and generally optimizes the performance of the battery. It prevents overheating by controlling the temperature. It provides real-time monitoring of the battery and takes security measures.

Cooling System: The cooling system, which keeps the operating temperature of the battery at an optimum level, prevents overheating and increases the performance and life of the battery. Generally liquid cooling or air cooling systems are used.

Bottom Protection Cover: The plastic or metal plate that covers and protects the bottom of the battery, provides protection against external impacts and protects the components at the bottom of the battery.

These parts come together to form a battery and enable the operation of various devices or vehicles by storing electrical energy.

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